PRINCIPLES OF AGENDA-LED OUTCOME-BASED ANALYSIS

 
How to organise the feedback process

Start with the learnerís agenda

        ask what problems the learner experienced and what help he would like from the rest of the group

Look at the outcomes learner and patient are trying to achieve

        thinking about where you are aiming and how you might get there encourages problem solving - effectiveness in communication is always dependent on what you are trying to achieve

Encourage self assessment and self problem solving first

        allow the learner space to make suggestions before the group shares its ideas

Involve the whole group in problem solving

        encourage the group to work together to generate solutions not only to help the learner but also to help themselves in similar situations


How to give useful feedback to each other

Use descriptive feedback to encourage a non-judgmental approach

        descriptive feedback ensures that non-judgmental and specific comments are made and prevents vague generalisation

Provide balanced feedback

        encourage all group members to provide a balance in feedback of what worked well and what didnít work so well, thus supporting each other and maximising learning - we learn as much by analysing why something works as why it doesnít

Make offers and suggestions; generate alternatives

        make suggestions rather than prescriptive comments and reflect them back to the learner for consideration; think in terms of alternative approaches

Be well intentioned, valuing and supportive

        it is the groupís responsibility to be respectful and sensitive to each other


Additional overall strategies for ensuring that the feedback process actually leads to deeper understanding and development of specific skills

Rehearse suggestions

        try out alternative phrasing and practice suggestions by roleplay - when learning any skill, observation, feedback and rehearsal are required to effect change

Value the interview as a gift of raw material for the group

        the interview provides the raw material around which the whole group can explore communication problems and issues: group members can learn as much as the learner being observed who should not be the constant centre of attention. All group members have a responsibility to make and rehearse suggestions

Opportunistically introduce theory, research evidence and wider discussion

        offer to introduce concepts, principles, research evidence and wider discussion at opportune moments to illuminate learning for the group as a whole

Structure and summarise learning so that a constructive end point is reached

        structure and summarise the session using the Calgary-Cambridge observation guides to ensure that learners piece together the individual skills that have arisen into an overall conceptual framework